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International Journal of Environment & Agriculture ISSN 2395 5791


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Feb 4, 2011


Dr. Mohd. Suhail, Scientist (Horticulture) K.V.K. Lakhimpur-Kheri M. 9450384746

Key ward – Aonla Drip. Mulching N, P, K. Ca. & Mg nutrients uptake.
The study was carried out during 1996-97 and 97-98 on drip irrigation regimes and mulching method on nutrient uptake of aonla (Emblica officinalis) cv. NA-10. The significant nitrogen (2.52) was analysed in 13 (IW/CPE=0.6) regime; while P, K and Mg was recorded significantly in 12 (IW/CPE=0.8) regime Ca content in 11 (IW/CPE = 1.0) mulching with paddy straw shows highest concentration of N, K, Ca and Mg while P content was absorbed in black polythene. Interaction of irrigation regime and mulching shows significant maximum N, K and Ca content in 13M2’ 12M2’ and 11M2’ combination respectively.
Aonla or Indian Goosberry (Emblica officinalis) thrives well in varied climate and soil conditions in the country. In recent years its cultivation is inereasing rapidly particularly in salt affected soil (sodic, saline) and also in ravines area in the country. Drip irrigation coupled with mulching can play an important role in conserving oil moisture, regulating soil temperature, reducing soil erosion, improving soil structure and control the weed population. Continuous use of organic mulches also helps in physio-chemical and biological properties of the soil. In the appear level of soil the amount of available nutrients are less, therefore, fruit trees with deep root system suffer from deficiency of nutrients. If the water is made available at the upper level of soil the plant will flourish by producing feeding roots at the upper level of the soil. The present investigation was design to find out the effect of drip irrigation and mulching on nutrient uptake of Aonla plants.

A two years field experiment was conducted during 1996-97 and 1997-98 at Main Experimental Station of N.D.U.A. & T. Kumarganj, Faizabad. The site is lies between a latitude of 24.470 and 26.560 and longitude of 81.120 and 83.890 at an elevation of 113.0 meter of mean sea level. The plants of Aonla (Embica officinalis) cultivar NA-10 was planted at a distance of 8 x 8 meter. There were four irrigation regimes and three mulching treatments. It constituted Factorial Randomized Block design with there replications and two trees of narandra Aonla-10 as unit. Treatment details and their combinations are given in table-1.
TABLE – 1 : Detail of treatments and Their Combinations.
S. N Factors Treatments Notation S.N Treatment combination Notation


Mulching 1W/CPE = 1.0
1W/CPE = 0.8
1W/CPE = 0.6
1W/CPE = 0.4
Black Polythene
Paddy straw
Control (No mulching) 11
M3 1.
12. 1W/CP = 1.0 + B.P.
1W/CP = 1.0+P.S.
1W/CP = 1.0+control
1W/CP = 0.8+B.S.
1W/CP = 0.8+P.S.
1W/CP = 0.8+control
1W/CP = 0.6+B.S.
1W/CP = 0.6+P.S.
1W/CP = 0.6+control
1W/CP = 0.4+B.S.
1W/CP = 0.4+P.S.
1W/CP = 0.4+control 11M1
 Where, B.P. = Black polythene P.S. = Paddy Straw
1W = depth of irrigated water (cm) CPE = cumulative pan evaporation (mm)
Black polythene (M1) sheet of 400 gaug of 4.0 x 4.0 m2 size was spread over the basin surface with their corner and side stitched with stacking pin and their side tagged in soil to avoid rolling and splitting on account of strong winds. Paddy straw (M2) @ 20 kg/plant (approximately 10 cm thickness) was spread over the tree basin and there were no mulching in control treatment. The mulches were placed after fertilizer application, irrigation and weeding the experimental plot to ensure the uniform moisture content.
The soil of the site was sodic with law fertility and poor water holding capacity. The initial soil characteristics were, sand 38.25%, silt 41.90%, clay 16.55% texture silty loam, field capacity 20-40%, bulk density 1.49 gcc-1, hydraulic conductivity 0.16, organic carbon 0.21%, soil pH 8.86, electric conductivity 3.7 m. mohs/cm at 250C, ESP 30.49%, carbonate 16.89, bicarbonate 9.70, available soil nitrogen 169.65 kg ha-1.
The youngest physically matured leaves (5-6 months old) of middle portion of identified twigs were selected and analysed at initiation and termination of experiment. The leaves were washed thoroughly and dried in the oven at 65 + 10 C until it gained constant weight. The sampled leaves were grounded and analysed the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium percentage. The initial nutritional status of leaves given in table-2.
TABLE – 2: Initial Nutritional Status of Aonla Leaves.
S.No. Nurient Value Method of Analysis
1. Nitrogen 2.07 Peach and Troey (1956)
2. Phosphorus 0.28 Richards (1954)
3. Potassium 1.43 Jackwon (1973)
4. Calcium 2.19 Chang & Bray (1951)
5. Magnesium 0.17 Chang & Bray (1951)

The mean value of N, P, K, C & Mg content of aonla leaves analysed are being presentedin talbe 3.a, 3.b, 3.c, 3.d & 3.e. It is justerious from Table 3.a and fig.-1 that Nitrogen content was significantly affected by irrigation method/mulching and interaction of these two factors. Drip irrigation at 13 (1W/CPE = 0.6) regime recorded highest leaf nitrogen (2.5%). It was varied from 2.08 to 2.81 per cent, and found maximum ie 2.81 in 13M2 treatment combination. It is indicate that restricted application of water reduced the nitrogen loading from the root zone and frequently irrigation for balance growth advantage (Henna and Adoms, 1992). The data presented in table 3.b, 3.c & 3.e that irrigation at 12 (1W/CPE = 0.8) regimes significantly influences the P, K and Mg content in leaves. The interaction of irrigations and mulching significantly impact on K and Ca content. The maximum K (2.26%) was recorded in 12M2 and Ca (2.42%) in 11M2 combination. the calcium inleaves was significantly madimum (2.19) within plants were irrigated at higher level of irrigation (1W/CPE = 1.0). It is clear that drip irrigation reduced exchangeable sodium salt due to adequate and regular supply of water and increased all the nutrient uptake in plant (Eflying, 1982; Neilson, 1995; Faill, 1990) 
The data shown in above mentioned tables that among the mulching treatments, paddy straw (M2) had beneficial effect on N, K, Ca and Mg. It might be due to conservation of water and provided congenial condition to plant root for better absorption of nutrients. The findings are in conformity with Mustaff (1988) and Pinamonti et al (1995). The data illustrated in Table 3.b that Phosphorus content in leaves was significantly higher (0.43%) in black polythene mulch. It may be restricted availability of P in soil as compare to paddy straw mulch which is lower the absorption and translocation of P in plant (Mustaffa, 1988; Maumata, et al. 1991)
Table 3: Effect of drip irrigation regimes and mulching on nutritional status of aonla leaves (cv. NA-10)
3.a) Nitrogen (%)
Mulching Irrigation (1W/CPE)
11 12 13 14 Mean
M1 2.15 2.32 2.39 2.39 2.31
M2 2.11 2.39 2.81 2.10 2.35
M3 2.08 2.18 2.36 2.11 2.18
Mean 2.11 2.30 2.52 2.20
CD (5%)         I = 0.108       M = 0.093 1 x M = 0.186
3.b) Phosphorus (%)
Mulching Irrigation (1W/CPE)
11 12 13 14 Mean
M1 0.41 0.45 0.44 0.42 0.73
M2 0.30 0.34 0.32 0.31 0.32
M3 0.34 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34
Mean 0.35 0.38 0.37 0.36
CD (5%)         I = 0.013       M = 0.011 1 x M = NS
3.c) Potassium (%)
Mulching Irrigation (1W/CPE)
11 12 13 14 Mean
M1 1.88 2.00 1.89 1.59 1.84
M2 2.10 2.26 2.15 2.13 2.16
M3 1.50 1.69 1.64 1.51 1.59
Mean 1.83 1.98 1.89 1.74
CD (5%)         I = 0.038       M = 0.032 1 x M = 0.0.65

3.d) Calcium (%)
Mulching Irrigation (1W/CPE)
11 12 13 14 Mean
M1 2.11 2.30 2.17 1.66 2.06
M2 2.42 2.20 2.17 1.79 2.15
M3 2.04 2.05 1.65 1.60 1.84
Mean 2.19 2.18 2.00 1.68
CD (5%)         I = 0.034       M = 0.035 1 x M = 0.550
3.d) Magnesium (%)
Mulching Irrigation (1W/CPE)
11 12 13 14 Mean
M1 0.27 0.29 0.28 0.24 0.27
M2 0.33 0.35 0.32 0.31 0.33
M3 0.21 0.24 0.23 0.21 0.22
Mean 0.27 0.29 0.28 0.25
CD (5%)         I = 0.015       M = 0.013 1 x M = NA
Change, K, L., bray, R.H. (1951). Determination of calcium and magnesium in soil and 
                                  plant Soil Sciences, 17; 449-458.
Elfying, D.C. (1982). Crop response to trickle irrigation Hort. Rev., 4 : 1 – 48.
Failla, O., Zocchi, G., Mignani, I.; Treeani, C., Cocucci. S.M.C. (1990). Effect of water 
                             availablity on mineral nutrient, vegetable and fruit growth in apple  
                             trees. Proceeding of 23rd International Horticulture Congress, Firenze 
                            (Itely) held on August 27th to September 1st 1990.
Jackson, M.K. (1973). Soil chemical analysis, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
Marumata, T.; Aaki, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Kusaka, T.; Kheng, J.W. C.; Higoshi, T. (1991).
                             Effect of rhizospore conditions on the growth of strawberry. 1- Effect
                             of nitrogen level, soil temperature an mulch. Bulletin of faculty of 
                            Agricuture, Yamaguchi University, No – 39 : 23 – 35.
Mustaffa. M. M. (1988). Effect of orchard management practices on yield and leaf 
                              nutrient of Coorg mandin J. of. Horli. Sci. 63 (4) : 711 – 716.
Neilson, G. H. and Hogue, E. J. (1985). Effect of orchard soil management of the growth 
                           and leaf nutrient concentration of young dwarf ‘red Delicious’ apple
                           trees. Can. J. Soil. Sci. 65 : 309 – 315.
Peach, K.; Tracy, M.V. 91956). Modern method of plant analysis. Val. II.
Pinamounti, E.: Zorsi, G.; Goperi, E.; Solvestri, S.; Stringari, G. 91995). Growth and 
                           nutrient status of apple and grape vines in municipal solid waste 
                           amended soil. Acta Horticulture. 383 : 313 – 312.
Richards, L.A., et al., 91954). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. US 
                          DA Agricultural Honal Book, No. 60 : 2.

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