|Different kinds of insect of National Chambal Sanctuary.|
C. P. SINGH1,Dr YOGESH DIXIT ,Dr R. R. S. CHAUHAN1 AND S .B. MISHRA2
Department of Zoology Janta Mahavidyalaya Ajitmal Auraiya (U. P) INDIA1
National Chambal Sanctuary UP India2
·A detailed exploration of Yamuna –Chambal forest was carried out between Udi to Pachnada in March 2012 to Sep 2014. The entire study area is covering about 3000 Sq. km from Udi to Pachnada. The riverine study stretch of Chambal and Yamuna was surveyed by row boat, motor boat and the forests stretch surveyed on foot and on motor cycle for documented important land marks and various activities. Occasionally information gathered from local people and forest department staff members. The general achievements were-
Chambal is unpolluted river.
At Bhareh confluence (Chambal with Yamuna) water was found less polluted due to mixing of Yamuna water.
Avian fauna was satisfactory.
Gharial population is higher than mugger.
Dolphin population is high at Herpura.
Hard shell turtle high but soft shell turtle is less.
Deforestation and fishing in main anticonservation.
River bank condition is much concern.
Annelids, Mollucs and Arthropods were noticed as main Invertebrates.
1- More than 350 species of forest vegetations have been presented.
2- Deforestation, mining and cultivation were main anticonservation activities.
3- Main Mammalian species were Mole, Hedgehog, Rats,Rabbit,Squerrel,Porcupine Pangolin, Fox ,Mangoose,Junglecat,Jackal,Hyena ,Weasels,Ratel,Stag,Nelgai, Ban gai,Wild boar,Sambhar.
4- Main reptiles noticed in this area were Python, Cobra, and black headed snake Racer, Double headed snakes, Monitor lizard and calottes.
5- All common birds were present.
6- Invertebrates fauna were Annelids, terrestrial univalve Mollucs, and many species of
Arthropods such as Arachnids Millipedes Centipedes Crustaceans and Insects.
7- Neelgai, Jackal and Wild boar population is satisfactory.
8- Python population is increasing in this area.
Key words- Chambal, Forest, Gharial, Dolphin, Python, Porcupine, Birds and Insects.
The Chambal River originates from Vindhya range of Mahow District near Indore Madhya Pradesh lying 240 55’and 250 50’ N, and 750 18’ E.It is a clear, fast flowing and unpolluted river of India.Chambal forming boundary of Rajasthan, M.P. and U P.It joins the Yamuna near Bhareh of Eatwah District of U P. During 1978/79 this river was declared as a Crocodile Sanctuary under the crocodile breeding project with an aim to provide protection of Gharials habitat and conservation. This river provides suitable habitat and shelter even of Gharials to Mugger Dolphin Turtle, Wetland birds, Migratory birds and terrestrial animals.
Till now in National Chambal Sanctuary studies were conducted for aquatic fauna by Chauhan and Mishra1998 , Sherma and Rao,Naraina et al 2006, Hussain and Chaudhary 1995, C P et al.2014, Kumar et al 1998, Rao et al ,1989 Behrara and Rao 1999 Hari and Rao 2012, Sitaram and Rao Till there was no published record of Forest species of Chambal –Yamuna and was no precise data about whole wild species occurrence and a very few little information is available related to wild animals in this area, The main purpose of this study for assessment of wild species of this protected area and make strategy for their conservation and habitat management and identification of threats for survivorship of fauna.
We carried out the study along 60 Km along Chambal river between Udi(N260 42’ 23,E 0 780 54’ 34.5) to Pachnada (Map) the whole study area is divided in two parts , First part is reverine and second is forest area on both sides of Chambal and Yamuna. This stretch is expanded as large ridges and crags of forest and with a number of arid thorny vegetations .the entire study is divided in fours surveys for summaries the data.
I survey of Chambal River from Udi to Pachnada.
IISurvevey of Chambal Forest.
III Survey of yamuna River FROM Dibholi ToBhareh confluence
IV Survey of Yamuna forest
The entire reverine study area surveyed by Motor boat or row boat and forest area surveyed by on foot, in the survey of forest the methods are used i. e. linear method and branching method or by sampling method. The information of occurrence of species gathered from local people and staff members of forest departments. All the essential recorded on a field sheet and for visual aid a Sony camera used for took photographs and binocular used for locating animals . Pug marks, body parts feacal mater dead skeleton were examined for indirect evidences of occurrence of land species and also living burrows explored for occurrence of burrowing species such as Pangolin ,Porcupine and Monitor lizards etc.
Results and Discussion
A Detailed map of study area is given here. The photographic evidences showing on plates recording of occurrence of fauna and flora ,anticonservation activities and pollution status , the whole investigated area is divined in two four parts.
I Survey of Chambal River from Udi to Pachnada:
Juliflora, Jhao, Desi babool, Neem, Sheesham Peepal.
Crab, Water bug, Water scorpion, Dragon flies, Damsel flies, Yellow wasps and Potter Wasps, Black ants, Beetles ,Butter flies, Grass hopper, Spider, Moths.
Rohu, Tengan, Wllago, Notopterus, Catla, Parhin, Gonch, Rita, Kalabasu, Kawai (observed only in confluence region at Bhareh).
Frog and Toad.
Mugger, Gharial, Soft shell turtle, hard shell turtle and Water snakes.
Painted Stork, Wooly- necked Stork, Grey heron , Cattle egret , Comb duck, Wag tail , Common Shelduck ,Cormorant ,Spoon bill, Plover Osprey. Pariaha kite, Egyptian vulture, king fisher, Black ibis, Red crested poschard,River lapwing, Red watted Lapwing, white breasted king fisher, ,Geese,thicknee Black winged Stilt, Indian Skimmer , Pretincole , Bar headed goose, Drongo, Pelicans, Crane, Open bill, Parrot, Lesser whistling duck, Indian Peafowl.
Only Dolphins found but otter not observed.
Ferry services, seasonal cultivation cremation, fishing and deforestation
II Survey of Chambal forest:
Jull flora shesham Rionj, Desi babool,.
Grass hopper Praying Mantis spiders beetles weevils bugs butterflies moths wasps ants white ants dragon flies Damsel flies Univalves Earth worm Centipede Julus and Scorpion.
Toad and frog .
Python, Cobra, Monitor lizard, Racer Double headed, Blind Snakes, Black headed Snakes, Garden lizard , Turtle.
Parrot, House crow ,Jungle crow, Robin, Fly catcher, Coucal, Koel ,Laughing Dove, Red vented Bulbul, Black shoulder kite, Ghughu ,Owl , Indian Pea fowl, House sparrow,Bea eater, Grey francolin and Quill.
Nilgai, Stag, Indian, Wild boar, Hare, Squirrel, Rat, Pangolin , Porcupine ,Jackal, Hyena , Wild cat, Weasel, Common Mongoose, Small Indian Mongoose, Indian fox,Hedgehog,Sambar.
Deforestation, cremation, seasonal cultivation, poaching.
III Survey of Yamuna River from Dibholi to Bhareh confluence
Julliflora Dessi babool ,Sheesham, Rionj ,Neem ,Peepal .
Crab Leech, Earth worm, Univalves , Bivalves , Butterflies, moths, water scorpion Water beetle Mole Cricket, Weevil, Dragon flies , Damsel flies, Spiders,Julus,Centipedes, Velvet mite, Wasps Ants, Honey bees, Bugs, Grasshopper , Praying mantis, cricket , Ground beetle, Anthia sexguttata Dung beetle, Leaf beetle, Potato beetle ,Tiger beetle Cockroach, Earwigs , mosquitoes and House flies.
Kawai(Telapapia mojembica) Parhin, Wallago ,Rohu ,Anabas ,Narrain,Kalabasu.
Frog and toad
Information only occurrence of Gharials,But Mugger not found, Water snakes, Soft Shell Turtle , Hard shell Turtle, Monitor lizard, Garden lizard, Grass Shink ,Ladakhi Rod Shink.
Pond heron, Grey heron, Painted stork, Black necked Stork ,Open bill,Snake bird, Indian Roller ,Flamingo ,Pelican, Sand piper ,King fisher , White bickered kingfisher , Spoon bill, Black winged stilts ,,River lapwing, Red watteded lapwing,Gowit,Wooly necked Stork,Catle egret ,Cormorant,EgyptianVulture.
Dolphin Noticed only near Bhareh confluence region up to Sikrori Bridge in Flooded condition in rainy season.
Seasonal cultivation Agricultural expansion mining and sand mining deforestation high level, poaching of Neelgai Wild boar, monitor lizard and birds.
IV Survey of Yamuna forest from Dibholi to Pachnada
Julliflora, Desi babool, Sheesham, Rionj,Kanji Bamboo, Arhu Neem, Peepal ,Chhekur.
Earthworm , Centipede Julus, Spider, Scorpion , Crustacean , Velvet Mite, Univalves, Butterflies, Moths, Ground beetle, Tiger beetle, Garden beetle, Bugs, Leaf beetle, Dung beetle,GrassHopper, Poikilocerus cricket, Dragon flies Damsel flies Yellow wasp Potter wasp,Anthia.
Toad and frog.
Python, Cobra, Racer Double Headed Monitor Lizard, Garden Lizard, Grass Shink, Turtle, Blind Snake, Black headed Snake.
Indian Roller , Common Myna , Bank Myna, Asian Pied Starling, Collared Dove, Spotted Dove, Laughing Dove, Rock pigeon Indian Robin, Oriental Magpie, Asian Paradise Flycatcher, Black Drongo ,Bee eater ,Rufous Treepie, Common Hoopoe , Grey francolin Quail, Greater Coucal, Koel, Asian Koel,Drongo Cuckoo, Parhina, House Crow ,Jungle crow, Indian Grey Hornbill, Common flameback , Red vented Bulbul, Red Whiskered Bulbul, owl Ghughu Jungle Prinia,Ashy Prinia,Crested Lark, Jungle Wag tail, White wagtail,Pipit,Black shoulder kite, BayaWeaver ,Eurasian Tree Sparrow, Jungle Barbler Egyptian vulture, Eagle ,Indian Peafowl,Thicknee, Owl ,Ghughu.
Jackal, Porcupine , Pangolin, Nilgai, Sambhar, Mongooses, Weasel ,Ratel, Bangai,Hyena,Hare Hedgehog Rat ,Mole, Squirrel ,Wild boar,
Anthropogenic activities- deforestation, sand mining and agricultural expansions. Poaching of Wild boar and Neelgai
During our surveys we found that Chambal Yamuna forest provide natural habitat for a number of wild species as well as aquatic animals .The areas monitored by us where wild fauna are free to move ,breed and feed and attained their necessities for survival.
This area is good for insect diversity .The population of Neelgai and Wild boar are increasing in herbivores. They cause serious damage of crops and siltation .the new species also introduced in this area known as Bangai they also nuisance for farmers. But the population of Porcupine and pangolin is much concerned due to poaching and Habitat destruction and environmental conditions. In carnivores the population of Jackals is increasing on wide range but on other hand the absence of wolf is a method of great concern .The population of Hyena , Fox, Weasele ,Ratel, Leopard is decreased dramatically .
In the study the snakes species are recorded as Python , Dumuhi ,Racer Black Headed Cobra and Water snakes .Pythons is mainly recorded during early winter season is basking in sun light and moving in day tine for searching of food in Agricultural areas and near Villages and also in forest But number of Cobra is decreased .In lizard calottes is common but Monitor lizard is facing serious threats due to hunting and habitat loss.
The author also observed that due to absence of tall tree in the study area the peacock migrate to the sides of village for shelter at night and egg laying this is not suitable for their survival.
During month of May and June about every year forest fire is because dramatic Damage of Natural Habitat and most of vegetation brunet in this incident a number of species’ eggs new hatch lings are die.
Most of the staff members are less interested in Research activities and in conservation of wild animals. The ecosystem of National Chambal Sanctuary is provided good abode for two famous pet animals one is Jamuna pari goats and other is Bhadawari Buffaloes, these are the main pet animal of this area and they are main source for revenue for local people.
We are grateful to Department of Zoology, Janta Mahavidyalaya Ajitmal Auraiya U P for providing us facilities required for conducting this research. We also express our thanks we are also thankful to U P Forest Department for permission and logistic support to carry out this study. we also thanks to Boatman Mr Nibbulal and Mr Jai Krishan was very helpful and cooperative during our surveys. Last but not the least we thank our field assistants, for their rigorous efforts during the surveys.
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Chandrapal Singh (C. P. Singh) is a research scholar at Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India, He may be reached him at email@example.com