International Journal of Environment & Agriculture
ISSN 2395 5791
"किसी राष्ट्र की महानता और नैतिक प्रगति को इस बात से मापा जाता है कि वह अपने यहां जानवरों से किस तरह का सलूक करता है"- मोहनदास करमचन्द गाँधी

जर्मनी द्वारा अंतर्राष्ट्रीय पुरस्कार "द बॉब्स" से सम्मानित पत्रिका "दुधवा लाइव"

Save Tiger


Lady Rosetta

Potatoes with low sugar content and longer shelf life.

अबूझमाड़ के जंगल

जहां बाघ नही नक्सली राज करते हैं

खवासा का आदमखोर

जहां कांपती थी रूह उस नरभक्षी से

जानवर भी करते हैं योग

योगाचार्य धीरज वशिष्ठ का विशेष लेख

Jan 10, 2012

Drip irrigation regimes and mulches effects on soil temperature.

Drip irrigation regimes and mulches effects on soil temperature. 
Dr. Mohd. Suhail,, Mob. 9450384746, KVK Lakhimpur
Key worlds : aonla, drip, fungus, bacteria earthworms
The study was carried out during 1996-97 and 97-98 on drip irrigation regimes and mulching method on nutrient uptake of aonla (Emblica officinalis) cv. NA-10. It is clear from the observation that application of different regimes shows that there is very minute impact on soil temperature. In general higher soil temperature was reported in I1 (IW/CPE=1) irrigation regime. The soil temperature at 15 cm. depth varied in deferent mulches. Maximum soil temperature has been reported in black polythine (M1) followed by control and paddy straw mulch.
Aonla or Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis) thrives well in varied climate and soil conditions in the country. In recent years its cultivation is inereasing rapidly particularly in salt affected soil (sodic, saline) and also in ravines area. Drip irrigation coupled with mulching can play an important role in conserving soil moisture, regulating soil temperature, reducing soil erosion, improving soil structure and control the weed population. Continuous use of organic mulches also helps in physio-chemical and biological properties of the soil. The present investigation was design to find out the advantages of mulches on soil temperature. 
A two years field experiment was conducted during 1996-97 and 1997-98 at Main Experimental Station of N.D.U.A. & T. Kumarganj, Faizabad. The site is lies between a latitude of 24.470 and 26.560 and longitude of 81.120 and 83.890 at an elevation of 113.0 meter of mean sea level. There were four irrigation regimes and three mulching treatments.
Table 1: Detail of treatment combinations and their notation
S.N. Details of treatment combination Notation
1 IW / CPE = 10 + Black polythene I1M1
2 IW/ CPE = 10 + Paddy straw I1M2
3 IW / CPE = 10 + Control I1M3
4 IW / CPE = 0.8 + Black polythene I2M1
5 IW/ CPE = 0.8 + Paddy straw I2M2
6 IW / CPE = 0.8 + Control I2M3
7 IW / CPE = 0.6 + Black polythene I3M1
8 IW/ CPE = 0.6 + Paddy straw I3M2
9 IW / CPE = 0.6 + Control I3M3
10 IW / CPE = 0.4 + Black polythene I4M1
11 IW/ CPE = 0.4 + Paddy straw I4M2
12 IW / CPE = 0.4 + Control I4M3
IW is depth of irrigation water (cm)
CPE is cumulative pan evaporation (mm) recorded class ‘A’ pan evapometer
 Application of water
Water is usually applied by drip method on the bases of cumulative pan evaporation which is an indirect estimation method crop water status. The evaporation was daily recorded form the Department of Meteorology with the help of class ‘A’ pan evapometer. The amount of water required was computed at the ratio of IW over CPE at third day interval for irrigation treatment as per the following formula:
Quantity of water (liter)
=  (Size of baisn 〖(m〗^2) ×depth of irrigation (cm)×Pan evaporation (mm))/100
Black polythene sheet of 400 gauge of 4.0 x 4.0 m2 size was unrolled on the surface of the basin with their corner and side stitched with stacking pins and their other side tagged in soil to avoid rolling and splitting on account of strong winds. Paddy straw @ 20 Kg/plant (approximately 10 cm thickness) was spread over the tree basin and there were no mulches in control treatment. The mulches were placed after fertilization, irrigation and weeding the experimental plots to ensure the uniform moisture content.
Cultural Operations (Manuring and fertilization)
Plant were supplied with uniform dose of farm yard @ 50 kg per plant and chemical fertilizer @ 800 g N, 600 g P2O5 ad 800 g K2O per plant into two split doses, one half dose at the time of mulching (Feb.) and second half dose in the last month of August.
Soil temperature –
A digital soil thermometer (0 + 0.10C) was used to record soil temperature it is replication. The thermometers were stabled into the soil at 15 cm. depth and temperature recorded at weekly interval at 1430IST throughout the experimental period. The averaged monthly temperature had been illustrated in table (1).
Soil temperature –
From the observation of Table (2 and 3) & Fig (1) it is clear that application of water at different irrigation regimes had very minute impact on soil temperature during the entire period of experimentation. The continued higher soil temperature was recorded in black polythene mulching, it was followed by control and paddy straw mulching which recorded minimum soil temperature at most of the stages of observation Mulching with black polythene maintained continuously higher temperature because of black polythene intercepted more solar radiation and lower albedo (reflectivity) and reduced the loss of soil heat. It is in accordance with earlier information as advocated by Anderson and Gusttridge (1978), Marumata et. al, (1991). in strawberry, Tripathi and Katiyar (1984), in ber. Reduction of soil temperature with the use of organic mulches has been reported in a number of crops like tomato (Srivastava et al, 1984), banana (Obiefuna, 1991).
It is clear from the illustrated data in Table (2 and 3) that soil temperature was generally higher in polythene mulch alongwith higher level of irrigation (I1M1 treatment combination). Light and frequent irrigation together with paddy straw mulching reduced the soil temperature during the experimental period. Bell et al. (1985), Hochmuth et al. (1987) and Gupta and Gupta (1987) reported that mulching with plastic film and irrigation through drip method may raise the temperature. Organic mulches having cooling effect with frequent irrigation (Ghorai, 1994).

Table 1 : Meteorological observation during investigation
    (from Oct. 1995 to Oct 1997)
Period Atm. Temperature (0C) Rain fall (mm) Evopo ration (mm) Relative humidity (%) Wind velocity (km hr-1) Soil temperature
Min. Max. 5 cm 10 cm 15 cm
Oct 20.06 32.92 0.00 3.80 71.07 1.06 29.06 29.59 28.33
Nov 13.12 28.40 24.50 2.68 64.24 1.18 21.74 21.97 21.75
Dec 9.47 24.37 15.40 2.40 63.69 1.70 17.34 17.60 16.98
Jan 8.53 21.74 68.60 2.50 74.27 2.30 15.82 15.89 16.05
Feb 9.93 24.66 30.40 4.20 71.15 2.01 18.07 18.78 17.90
March 15.47 32.44 0.00 6.11 56.48 3.92 25.57 25.51 23.56
April 19.24 37.32 0.60 8.57 42.20 3.91 32.12 32.90 30.40
May 25.20 41.20 2.20 10.30 37.20 5.50 36.9 36.70 32.60
June 27.00 35.70 93.20 8.30 65.20 5.80 31.20 30.10 29.80
July 26.70 33.40 132.60 4.92 81.68 2.84 32.05 31.83 31.08
Aug 26.05 31.91 368.60 3.98 88.82 1.25 30.51 31.22 29.97
Sep 25.10 32.30 168.20 3.95 84.10 1.28 30.20 30.90 29.80
Oct 20.03 30.14 165.2 3.01 73.72 0.59 26.64 26.61 25.76
Nov 11.38 28.24 0.00 2.65 59.44 1.26 21.78 21.28 20.81
Dec 6.44 24.37 0.00 1.74 63.07 0.95 15.80 15.57 15.04
Jan 6.54 22.01 2.80 1.99 68.06 0.70 15.43 15.37 14.31
Feb 8.23 25.14 0.00 3.90 58.00 2.35 20.32 19.26 17.06
March 13.60 30.86 6.10 5.50 56.66 30.40 27.41 26.51 23.53
April 17.17 35.74 9.30 7.74 47.91 3.55 33.31 31.45 28.62
May 22.92 39.35 18.00 9.92 37.18 3.88 39.90 37.70 33.16
June 26.60 38.29 120.40 8.98 53.90 4.43 37.47 36.35 34.01
July 26.72 32.90 482.26 4.62 80.60 4.62 32.60 32.50 31.20
Aug 26.00 31.70 269.60 3.70 80.30 2.69 31.20 30.90 30.50
Sept 24.90 33.30 2.60 3.60 82.20 3.60 29.80 29.70 28.90
Oct 19.50 29.83 18.20 4.17 73.53 1.09 28.21 27.94 26.89

Table 2: Effect of drip irrigation regimes and mulching on soil temperature (0C) at 2:30 PM from November 1996 to June 1997.
Irrigation (IW/CPE November 96 December 96 January 97 February 96
Mulching I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean
M1 20.46 20.25 20.06 19.99 20.19 18.28 18.08 18.04 18.02 18.11 19.10 19.00 19.00 18.92 19.01 20.34 20.18 19.87 19.66 20.01
M2 19.98 17.93 17.88 17.87 18.42 17.93 17.93 17.89 17.87 17.91 18.30 18.28 18.04 18.03 18.16 18.55 18.55 18.12 18.08 18.28
M3 19.52 19.59 19.68 19.68 19.62 17.29 17.29 17.29 17.30 17.30 18.44 18.49 18.52 18.53 18.50 19.27 19.29 19.46 19.50 19.38
Mean 19.90 19.26 19.21 19.18 17.83 17.76 17.74 17.73 18.61 18.59 18.52 18.49 19.39 19.27 19.15 19.08
March 96 April 96 May 96 June 96
I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean
M1 23.56 23.50 23.46 23.10 23.41 28.80 28.77 28.75 28.22 28.64 32.76 32.39 32.14 31.92 32.30 35.00 34.99 34.95 33.86 34.70
M2 21.80 21.75 21.66 21.15 21.59 24.96 24.29 23.30 23.16 23.93 28.50 28.13 27.34 27.30 27.82 29.63 29.58 29.53 29.48 29.56
M3 21.99 22.08 22.14 22.86 22.27 26.30 26.45 26.64 26.84 26.56 30.00 30.38 31.40 31.45 30.81 32.37 32.40 32.42 33.48 32.67
Mean 22.45 22.44 22.42 22.37 26.69 26.50 26.23 26.07 30.42 30.30 30.29 30.22 32.33 32.32 32.30 32.27

Table 3: Effect of drip irrigation regimes and mulching on soil temperature (0C) at 2:30 PM from November 1995 to June 1996.
Irrigation (IW/CPE November 95 December 95 January 96 February 97
Mulching I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean
M1 19.99 19.94 19.58 19.52 19.76 18.78 18.69 18.62 18.58 18.67 21.00 20.95 20.08 19.89 20.49 23.37 22.60 22.43 21.40 22.46
M2 18.78 18.69 18.35 18.21 18.51 18.42 18.41 18.34 18.33 18.38 19.10 19.09 19.00 19.86 19.26 19.23 19.16 18.17 18.15 18.68
M3 17.63 17.69 17.77 17.78 17.72 18.39 18.40 18.50 18.50 18.45 20.00 20.02 20.09 20.10 20.05 21.36 21.53 21.90 22.23 21.76
Mean 18.80 18.77 18.57 18.50 18.53 18.50 18.49 18.47 20.03 20.03 19.7 19.95 21.32 21.10 20.83 20.59
March 97 April 97 May 97 June 97
I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean I1 I2 I3 I4 Mean
M1 25.39 25.02 24.71 23.98 24.78 29.52 29.40 29.36 28.65 29.23 33.98 33.94 32.45 31.78 33.04 36.01 35.60 34.88 34.19 35.17
M2 23.39 22.55 22.31 21.65 22.48 25.92 25.44 23.46 23.24 24.52 28.56 28.33 27.89 27.85 28.16 30.48 30.14 30.08 29.78 30.12
M3 23.33 23.82 24.10 24.50 23.94 26.86 27.06 28.00 28.10 27.51 32.83 32.38 34.16 34.50 33.47 33.23 33.29 3.56 34.00 33.52
Mean 24.04 23.80 23.71 23.38 27.43 27.30 26.94 26.66 31.79 31.55 31.50 31.38 33.24 33.01 32.84 32.66

Anderson, H.M., Guttridge, C.G. (1987). The performance of strawberry on polythine mulch ridges in England. Horticultural Research, 18 (1) : 27 – 29
Bell, C.E.; Durazo, A. III. Elmore, C.L. (1985). Weed management on specialty famrs- California Agriculture, 39 (11-12) : 17 18
Ghorai, A.K. (1994). Studies an growth yield, and water use of some field crop as influence by different level of irrigation and organic mulches in multiple cropping system Annual Report, WTCRI, Orissa, 91-101
Gupta, J.P.; Gupta, G.N. (1987). Response of tomato and okra crops to irrigation and mulches in arid region of India. Agrochimica 31 (3) : 193 – 203
Hochmuth , G.J., Kostewies, S.R., Locascio, S.J., Albreghts, E.E., Howered, C.M., Stauley, C.D. (1987). Freeze protection of strawberries with floating row covers. Proceeding of Florida state Horticultural Society. 99 : 307 – 311
Marumata, T.; Aaki, M.; Suzuk, Y.; Kusaka, T.; Kheng, J.W.C.; Higashi, T. (1991). Effect of rhizosphere conditions on the growth of strawberry I. Effect of nitrogen level, soil temperature and mulch. Bulletin of faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, No. 39 : 23 – 35.
Obiefuna, J.C. (1991). The effect of crop residue mulches on the yield and production pattern of plantain (Musa AAB), Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 8 (1) : 71 – 81
Srivastava, B.K., Sharme, A.K., Singh, N.P., Pandey, U.B., (1994). Effect of organic mulches and irrigation level of fruit temperature, water economy yield of summer tomato, Vegetable Sciences, 11 (1) : 1 – 9
Tripathi, R.P., Katiyar, T.P.S., (1984). Effect of mulches on thermal regime of soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 4 : 381 – 390.

Jan 2, 2012

बाघों का रखवाला- बिली अर्जन सिंह

यादों में रह गए दुधवा के विली अर्जन सिंह 
वन्य-जीव संरक्षकों की दुनिया की जानी मानी महान विभूति तथा दुधवा नेशनल पार्क की स्थापना में अग्रणी एवं महती भूमिका निभाने वाले पदमश्री बिली अर्जुन सिंह आज के ही दिन यानी एक जनवरी 2010 को दुनिया से अलविदा करके पंचतत्व में विलीन हो गए थे। यह विडम्बना ही कही जाएगी कि क्षेत्र के वाइल्ड लाइफरों समेत वन्य-जीव संरक्षण का ढिंढोरा पीटने वाले एनजीओ के अगुवाकारों ने ही नहीं वरन् दुधवा नेशनल पार्क प्रशासन ने भी स्वर्गीय बिली अर्जुन सिंह को दो साल के भीतर ही भुला दिया। इसका प्रमाण यह है कि क्षेत्र में कहीं भी उनकी याद में कोई कार्यक्रम किसी ने आयोजित करने की जहमत नहीं उठाई है।
बताते चलें कि 15 अगस्त 1917 को देश के पंजाब सूबे में कपूरथला स्टेट के जसवीर सिंह के घर में अर्जुन सिंह पैदा हुए थे। गोरखपुर तथा मेरठ में नजदीकियां होने से वह फौज में भरती हो गए। द्वितीय विश्वयुद्ध में अंग्रेजी सेना की ओर से वर्मा देश में जाकर बतौर आर्मी कैप्टन युद्ध लड़ा था। इसके बाद देश की आजादी से पहले ही अर्जुन सिंह ने फौज की नौकरी छोड़ दी थी। इससे पूर्व अपने कुछ रिश्तेदारों के बुलावे पर अर्जुन सिंह खीरी के जंगल में शिकार करने आए थे तब उन्होंने बारह वर्ष की अल्पायु में बाघ का शिकार किया था। मगर फिर शिकार करने के बाद उनका हृदय परिवर्तन हो गया और खीरी के घने जंगलों के अलावा संपूर्ण प्रकृति के वह प्रेमी हो गए उन्हें वयंजीवों एवं पक्षियों में खास कर बाघ से बेहद प्रेम हो गया। फौज में वह एयरफोर्स में जाना चाहते थे लकनि उनकी इच्छा के आगे कद आ गया। यह इच्छा पूरी करने के लिए स्वतंत्रता के बाद वह खीरी के पलिया थाना क्षेत्र के तहत जंगल की सीमा पर उन्होंने टाइगर हैवन के नाम से आशियाना बनाकर रहने लगे।
केन्द्रीय सरकार में पहुंच और प्रधानमंत्री स्वर्गीय इन्दिरा गांधी से नजदीकियां होने के कारण पर्यावरण प्रेमी बिली अर्जुन सिंह को विलायत से लाई गई तारा नामक बाघिन को पालने पोसने के लिए श्रीमती गांधी ने ही उन्हें सौंपा था। इस बीच दो फरवरी 1977 को दुधवा नेशनल पार्क की स्थापना कराने में भी बिली अर्जुन सिंह का खासा महत्वपूर्ण योगदान रहा। 
इनके प्रयासों से ही 1984 में बाघ संरक्षण परियोजना की भी शुरूआत हुई थी। यूपी, खीरी और दुधवा को दुनिया के पर्यटन मानचित्र पर एक सम्मानजनक स्थान दिलवाने में बिली अर्जुन सिंह ने अहम भूमिका अदा की थी। उन्होंने दुधवा की ख्याति को ब्रिटेन, इंग्लैंड आदि दुनिया के अन्य देशों तक पहुंचाया। हैरियट और जूलियट नामक नर मादा तेंदुआ को अपने आवास पर पाल पोसकर बड़ा किया था। बीते दो साल पूर्व एक जनवरी को बिली अर्जुन सिंह ने जब इस दुनिया से अलविदा कहा था तब उनके अंतिम दर्शनों के लिए देश विदेश से उनके नाते रिश्तेदारों के साथ ही क्षेत्रीय जन प्रतिनिधि, डब्ल्यूडब्ल्यूएफ के अधिकारी तथा सूबे के वन विभाग के उच्चाधिकारी यहां आए थे। दुधवा नेशनल पार्क के कर्मचारियों ने सीमा पर उनकी शवयात्रा को सलामी भी दी थी। लेकिन यह विडम्बना की बात यह है कि दो साल ही बीता है कि क्षेत्रीय लोगों ने उनको भुला दिया यहां तक दुधवा नेशनल पार्क प्रशासन ने ही द्वितीय पुण्यतिथि पर बिली को याद किया और न ही वाइल्ड लाइफर होने का दंभ भरने वालों समेत वयंजीव संरक्षण के नाम पर चला रहे एनजीवों के अगुवाकारों द्वारा कोई कार्यक्रम आयोजित किया गया। इससे लगता है कि क्षेत्र की महान विभूति बिली अर्जुन सिंह को यहां के लोगों ने भुला दिया है।  बिली अर्जुन सिंह की द्वितीय पुण्यतिथि पर मैं अपनी ओर से  श्रद्धांजलि अर्पित करता है।

किताबें लिखी, तमाम पुरस्कारों से नवाजा गया 
बिली अर्जुन सिंह को टाइगर कंजरवेशन के लिए किए गए उनके महत्वपूर्ण योगदान के लिए 1979 में देश के अलंकरण पदमश्री उपाधि से विभूषित किया गया। सन् 2005 में अमेरिका के विश्वस्तरीय पालगेटी एवार्ड से भी उन्हें नवाजा गया था। इससे पूर्व 1977 में विश्व में विश्वजीव कोष से गोल्डन आर्क पुरस्कार मिला। 1989 में ईएसएसओ सम्मान, 2003 में सेंक्चुरी एमएमआरओ लाइफ टाइम सर्विस सम्मान, सन् 2005 में यश भारती सम्मान से भी उनको नवाजा गया था।
बिली अर्जुन सिंह द्वारा वन्य-जीव तथा बाघ संरक्षण पर दि लीजेंड आफ मैनइटर टाइगर, टाइगर हैवन, वाचिंग इंडियाज वाइल्ड लाइफ, तारा द टाइग्रेस, प्रिंस आफ कैट्स, बायोग्राफी इंडियस वाइल्ड लाइफ आदि पुस्तकें भी लिखी जो विश्व स्तर पर खासी प्रसिद्ध हुई। ब्रिटिश लेखक डफ हर्टडेविस द्वारा बिली के जीवन पर लिखी गई पुस्तक आनरेटी टाइगर द लाइफ आफ बिली अर्जुन सिंह भी खासी चर्चित रही। 

देवेन्द्र प्रकाश मिश्र, (लेखक वरिष्ठ पत्रकार हैं, मौजूदा वक्त में हिन्दुस्तान दैनिक के पलिया में संवाददाता, वन्य-जीव सरंक्षण पर लेखन, अमर उजाला में कई वर्षों तक पत्रकारिता, आप पलिया से ब्लैक टाइगर नाम का अखबार निकाल रहे हैं, इनसे पर संपर्क कर सकते हैं। )

Bachelor of Tiger Haven ‘ Billy Arjan Singh’

photos courtesy:
Tigerman- Billy Arjan Singh

December 1957, traveling on canal road as good as a coal tar road we reached Jasbir nagar  at dusk. There was no electricity in those days just lanterns so for a boy of my age away from home for the first time entire scene was gloomy. This was the first time I saw him. It was Christmas time so we were offered home made cake and a little later we pushed off to Dudhwa as permit holders for a fortnights big game hunt.

Later on once in a while I saw him at my Uncle Late Naresh Singhs house as and when he visited lucknow, both were very fond of each other having lot of things in common , bravery , perfect knowledge of wild life , straightforward and blunt. Their conversation was a treat for us , now I realize what kind of relationship friends used to have in those good old days. Late uncle went around in the jungle on foot with a camera and late billy uncle also had the habit of roaming in forest all alone , both used to tell each other that you are doing wrong and someday Tiger is going to kill you! Both lived their full life and did a lot for the cause of wild life.

When I grew up I took up the passion of small and big game shikar , being aware of  late billy uncles disliking of shooting animals I avoided going anywhere near him or he would have asked me to give up.

1970 we had a permit for Sathiana block and tiger was allowed along with other animals and birds. This was the time when late billy uncle used to pursue a huge male tiger, going near him as long he permitted and used to take photographs. This tiger was a resident between Tiger Haven and sathiana which we learnt from late billy uncle.Despite being great friend of my uncles late billy uncle gave a clear cut warning that in case this tiger was shot then  he will break the ties of friendship. As luck would have it neither we made any attempt to locate the tiger nor it was seen anywhere.

photo courtesy:
 June 1984 I was at dudhwa with a cousin and a friend. One morning while going on a elephant near soheli we saw a tigress with a injured paw , reaching the road we got down from the elephant and moved towards the car which was parked there . Before we could move further we saw late billy uncle coming on foot from dudhwa FRH. After wishing him we told him about the injured tigress which made him very worried . He asked me if I could take him to spot , I could not say no or we could have been branded as cowards. Next one hour was of full of hair raising experience, he in the lead followed by us through tall elephant grass and a dark animal trail. We reached the spot and he examined the pug marks. He made it a point that she has to be searched out or she will die of hunger. He asked me if I could come in the afternoon on a elephant and help search, I was also asked to find out from the then Director Dr R L Singh if he was willing to join us which he did. We spent the entire evening in the area but could not locate her. Next morning I returned to lucknow.Late billy uncle continued his search morning evening on foot all alone and finally while looking into the darkness of a cave one day tigress charged at him and he had to retreat. Finally one October morning I got a call from him to join him at lucknow zoo where she was brought after having been trapped. She was named ‘soheli’and she lived at the zoo for a year.

By this time I had totally given up shooting so there was no hesitation in meeting him as and when he came to lucknow.Meeting him regularly , talking on phone every second day and a regular correspondence on wild life issues increased my inclination towards wild life conservation with total thrust on dudhwa and tiger.I did learn a lot from him and a fat file of his articles and correspondence is my prized possession .

My self and Shri G C Mishra were his permanent guests at ‘ Tiger Haven’ , we have wonderful memories of chatting with him near the fire place , hearing old stories of shikar, good and the bad forest officers .He had a very good sense of humor contrary to his reputation of not very mixing type.

His work and his writings if taken seriously even today can be the backbone for saving ‘dudhwa’ and its remaining tiger, this is my challenge !

Kaushlendra Singh
(Wildlife Conservationist)
Member Tiger Haven Society
Founder Trustee Tiger & Terrain

Jan 1, 2012

गन्ने के खेत में बाघिन की मौजूदगी

दुधवा की बाघिन मितौली तक आ पहुंची अपने बच्चे के साथ-
केन टाइगर.....
मितौली-खीरी: लखीमपुर खीरी जनपद के मितौली विकास क्षेत्र में स्थित ग्राम पंचायत दानपुर में 29 दिसम्बर कों एक बाघिन ने अपनी उपस्थिति दर्ज की, गन्नें के खेतों में काम करने वाले ग्रामीणों के मुताबिक ये बाघिन अपने बच्चे के साथ है, जब अल-सुबह वह खेतों में काम करने पहुंचे तो इस धारीदार खूबसूरत जानवर से इनका सामना हुआ, नतीजतन लोगों नें खेतों में काम करना बन्द कर रखा है।

गन्ने की फ़सल वाले इस विशाल भू-भाग में जहां तहां गेहूं के खेत मौजूद है, जिनमें हालिया सिंचाई की जा चुकी है, और यही वजह रही कि इस बाघिन के पगमार्क यानि पन्जों के निशान गीली मिट्टी में हुबहू छपे हुए है।

 कस्ता सहकारी समिति के अध्यक्ष विवेक सिंह जो ग्राम-सभा दानपुर के निवासी है, ने मुझे यह सूचना दी, कि बाघ की आमद मितौली क्षेत्र में है, और उन्होंने इसके पद-चिन्हों की छाप देखी है। इनकी सूचना पर मैं 31 दिसम्बर की शाम उस खेत में पहुंचा जहां बाघ के चिन्ह मौजूद है, प्रथम दृष्टया यह पगमार्क बाघिन के है, ऐसा स्पष्ट हो रहा है, कुछ दूर चलने पर कुछ अस्पष्ट छोटे पगमार्क मिले जिन्हे बाघिन के शावक के बताये जा रहे है। इन पद-चिन्हों की तस्वीरे उतार ली, और साउथ खीरी वन प्रभाग के डी०एफ़०ओ० से सम्पर्क करने की कोशिश की किन्तु सम्पर्क न हो सका। 

लखीमपुर खीरी में स्थित दुधवा टाइगर रिजर्व से बाघों की आमद-रफ़्त इन गन्नों के खेतों में हमेशा से होती रही है, तराई जनपद खीरी शुगर मिल्स व गन्ने की पैदावार के लिए विश्व-पटल पर एक महत्वपूर्ण स्थान रखता है, गन्नें की फ़सल जो कैश-क्राप के अन्तर्गत है, इसलिए किसान अपनी जमीनों पर अधिक से अधिक क्षेत्रफ़ल में गन्ने की फ़सल उगाते है, जो दुधवा के जंगलों से सटकर पूरे जनपद तक एक {मानव-जनित} घास के मैदान का आभास कराता है।

बाघों के मध्य इलाकों को लेकर संघर्ष, भोजन यानि शिकार की अनुपलब्धता, बाघिन द्वारा अपने शावकों की नर बाघों से सुरक्षा आदि कारणों से ये जानवर मानव द्वारा तैयार गन्ने की फ़सल में आते रहे है, जो इन्हें प्राकृतिक ग्रास-लैण्ड का आभास कराते है, साथ ही इन कृषि क्षेत्रों में इन्हे नील-गाय, सुअर, खरगोश जैसे शिकार भी मिल जाते है, या फ़िर ग्रामीणों के मवेशियों को भी ये अपना शिकार बना लेते है। अपने वजूद को बचाये रखने के लिए स्थान से विस्थापन इनकी ही नही पृथ्वी पर मौजूद प्रत्येक जीव की वृत्ति में मौजूद है।

इस बाघिन व इसके शावक की मौजूदगी का एक और प्रमाण कस्ता  ग्राम सभा के पूर्व प्रधान द्वारा बताया गया कि कस्ता गांव के समीप स्थित गन्ने के खेत में एक नील-गाय का खाये जा चुके शव के हिस्से प्राप्त हुए है। नील-गाय का शिकार इन इलाकों में बाघ के सिवा अन्य कोई नही कर सकता है, क्योकि मानव आबादी के मध्य अब सिर्फ़ दोयम दर्जे के शिकारी जीव बचे हुए है, जैसे सियार, कुत्ते इत्यादि।

बाघ की जंगल से इतनी दूर इस मौजूदगी को गम्भीरता से लिया जाए,  और इसकी मानीटरिंग की जाए, ताकि मानव-शिकारियों से इसकी सुरक्षा की जा सके, साथ ही यह बाघिन अपने व अपने बच्चे के जीवन को बचाने में यदि कोई मानव को शिकार बनाती है, तो इसे मानव-भक्षी का तमगा पहनाकर या तो कैद कर दिया जायेगा किसी चिड़ियाघर में या फ़िर इसे मौत दे दी जायेगी जैसा कि वन विभाग हमेशा से करता है।

 कृष्ण कुमार मिश्र

In Tiger Country with Tigerman

Photo Courtesy: Wild Stripes Foundation

                                      TIGER Country.
Tiger, my first opportunity to visit  the forests of India was in 1999,when I visited Dudhwa National Park, Uttar Pradesh. I was to meet with Billy Arjan Singh, who lived at Tiger Haven, on the peripheries of the park. To meet him was the greatest honour for myself, as he lived Tiger and released a captive Tiger, Tara from a zoo in the UK into the forest of Dudhwa, she had many litters, that would increase the number of Tiger in the area. 

He also released leopards into the wild, to do this takes much patience, courage and tenacity, as he met much resistance from locals and forest officials. He was the driving force behind getting Dudhwa, set up as a national park, persuading Indira Gandhi in to this great act in 1972. On meeting the man, I found him to be very supportive and helpful, asking for my reason for my trip, asking why the west is not doing more to help Tiger. The hospitality by himself and his sister were very grateful, as I was staying close by at Dudhwa tourist area. I had expected to be able to camp in the area, how naive of me, thinking back those twelve years. I spent two days in his company at various times and he would also come to the camp to confirm a few details with me. 

The world lost a GREAT HERO on January 1st 2010, his passing leaves a large hole in the area for Tiger. I hope that Tiger Haven will become a museum and institute to conservation in the area. 

Phil Davis – Tiger Awareness.
 Leicester, United Kingdom

Billy- The Legend

Billy, The Legend
G.C. Mishra

It is commemorate Billy Arjan Singh on his 2nd death anniversary on 1st January 2012. I am trying to bring forth certain untouched aspects about him. Billy’s demise has created a big void in the wildlife conservationists’ world. He was a shining star of the galaxy of the contemporary biodiversity conservationists. His thoughts and writings are still giving lots of motivation and inspiration to the followers of his track.
To fulfil one’s mission one has to be fanatic. Billy Arjan Singh was a concrete example to this dogma. He was so honest to his approach that he often proved to be uncomfortable even to well meaning persons. Due to this aspect of his personality he used to antagonise many persons, who could be useful to fulfilling his mission, the wildlife conservation. You will find many officers who will speak in favour of Billy. Normally they forget his real worth and remember his blunt approach and not so conducive treatment meted out to them. This quality of his had turned him into an awe inspiring personality. Even people very close to him would not muster courage to say something which they presumed to be unpalatable to Billy.
I had joined as Wild Life Warden (WLW), Kheri Region in July 1973. Immediately I made it a point to see Billy, as I was advised by my predecessor, who was per chance admirer of Billy. He told me that, so far as protection and conservation of wildlife is concerned, Billy could prove as my friend, philosopher and guide, if I could keep him in good humour. A few months after taking over as WLW I happened to meet my predecessor at Lucknow. During the course of discussion I told him the high incidence of illegal fishing in the rivers and lakes of Kheri forests. He told me a very astonishing fact. As per him even Billy did illegal angling in the Suheli river flowing in the backyard of his residence Tiger Haven (TH). When I asked him, “why did he not point it out to Billy and stop it?” He told that this spoil his relation with him and might not get his support needed at times. But I was restless to meet Billy and stop this incongruous happening by a staunch wildlife conservationist. I contacted Billy as early as it was possible and put a straight question to him on this aspect. He confessed doing angling but pleaded complete ignorance of the provision making it illegal. Had he been doing it knowingly he could have put forth the argument that the right bank of the river belonged to the village in which house is situated, as the river made the boundary of the forest with the village. At that time fishing on permit was allowed even in the National Parks. I issued him the required permit on due payment of fee; he continued this practice thereafter.

Once his men got hold of a mugger (Crocodylus palustris) hatchling and brought it to him. Perhaps it was flown away by floods in the Suheli river. He, out of his passion to wild creature started nurturing it in a small pool, especially prepared for it, at TH. I also did not pay heed towards the legality or otherwise of this incidence, as the hatchling was well kept and was progressing well. I thought after it gets maturity and is able to fend for itself, it will be released in the river flowing adjoining the pool. The then Chief Wild Life Warden (CWLW) happened to visit the TH on Billy’s request as he was good friend to him. The CWLW himself could not inform Billy about the legal provisions of rearing a mugger, may be due to a feeling of embarrassment. He also did not point it out to me also, perhaps knowing my nature of immediate disposal. When I went to Lucknow to see the CWLW in connection with some official work, he pointed me out that I should persuade Billy to release the mugger hatchling back to the river. I asked him if Billy intends to do some experimentation, as he had been doing with the Prince, the leopard. He told in such an event he should seek permission of his office. I wanted to know that why he not asked Billy about all this while he was visiting TH, he replied that Billy might have not taken it with good taste. The moment I told Billy about the provision of hand rearing of the mugger, he took no time in releasing the hatchling into Suheli.

In the beginning of 1986 I took over as Director, Dudhwa National Park (DNP). Due to some official work I went to Delhi. I also met the then Secretary, Environment and Forests, due to protocol requirements and mainly owing to my old acquaintance with him, as he had visited the DNP area in 1974 when he was Deputy Secretary and I was WLW. After the discussion with him was over and was just leave his office he told that one most important issue he had forgotten to mention. He further added that it could be resolved only by me. It was a little bewildering and also soothing to listen from such a high level. He told that Billy was putting bait to the tigers in the forest near TH besides this practice being completely banned. I had neither the knowledge of this fact nor of the baits being tied by Billy. I spoke straight to Billy. He admitted in absolute forthright manner that he was doing it prove that Tara, the tigress claimed to have been shot by Dr RL Singh, sometime in 1982. I told him that either he had to stop the practice, which is not in tune with the Government of India (GoI) directives, or he had seek permission in writing from the GoI. He told that his study was already over. He was not going to put any more bait in future.

These are a few anecdotes to prove my point about the great soul Billy. There many in the repertory of my memory to be given in future. With these few words I pay homage the legendary figure of the area of wildlife conservation. 

Gyan Chandra Mishra (Former Field Director Dudhwa Tiger Reserve)   


आओ प्यारे कम्प्युटर पर बाघ बचायें!
अरूणेश सी दवे, जहाँ तक रही बात प्रबुद्ध बाघ प्रेमियों की जो नचनियों की तरह सज-धज कर जंगल कम इन्टरनेट पर ज्यादा अवतरित होते हैं, तो उनके लिये मै इंटरनेट मे वर्चुअल अबुझमाड़ बनाने का प्रयास कर रहा हूं । ताकि वो अपनी कोरी कल्पनाओं और वर्चुअल प्रयासों को इस आभासी दुनिया में जाहिर कर अपनी ई-कीर्ति बढ़ा सकें।

सामुदायिक पक्षी सरंक्षण
पक्षियों के संरक्षण का जीवन्त उदाहरण: ग्राम सरेली कृष्ण कुमार मिश्र, लखीमपुर खीरी* उन्नीसवी सदी की शुरूवात में ब्रिटिश हुकूमत के एक अफ़सर को लहूलुहान कर देने से यह गाँव चर्चा में आया मसला था।
तो फ़िर उनसे सीखा हमने योग!
धीरज वशिष्ठ* 84 लाख प्रजातियां और 84 लाख योगासन: पक्षियों-जानवरों से सीखा हमने आसन: धार्मिक चैनलों और बाबा रामदेव के कार्यक्रमों ने आज योग को घर-घर तक पहुंचा दिया है।
नही रहा सुमित!
दुधवा लाइव डेस्क* हाँ हम बात कर रहे है उस हाथी कि जो दो मई २०१० को लखनऊ चिड़ियाघर से दुधवा नेशनल पार्क भेजा गया था! वजह साफ़ थी, कि अब वह बूढ़ा हो गया था